Macular degeneration is a disorder that affects the macula – the central part of the retina /located at the rear section of the eye/. The macula is that part of the eye which allows us to see clear, even the tiniest details of an object, to be able to read or drive a car.

The macular degeneration affects the ability to see close and far and makes some daily activities, such as reading, almost impossible. Despite that the central vision is impaired the peripheral or side vision is preserved.


  • Lack of vitamins and minerals;
  • Impaired blood circulation in the retina;
  • Increased cholesterol and blood sugar levels which can cause degenerative processes with time;
  • Untreated hypertension;
  • It might be hereditary.

The age-related macular degeneration usually occurs in connection with the natural process of aging of the body after 60-65 years of age. Today it is still unknown why exactly the age-related macular degeneration occurs.


There are two most common types of macular degeneration: “dry” /atrophic/ and “wet” /exudative/. The dry form of macular degeneration is the most common type. It is related to the retina layers getting thinner with age. The loss of vision is gradual, rather an inability to see details in a given object. The wet form is seen in about 10% of all patients with macular degeneration. New vessels occur in or under the retina tending to blood. Thus, suddenly the central vision weakens. The macular degeneration manifests in different ways. The condition can be barely noticeable in its early stages. Sometimes it occurs in only one eye, while the other one continues to see well for years. But once the other eye is affected, the loss of central vision is tangible. The diagnosis is given after a few additional tests by an ophthalmologist. Sometimes fluorescein angiography /color image/ of the eyeground is necessary.


Despite the numerous studies there is no universal treatment of the dry form of the macular degeneration. In some cases food supplements and vitamins could slow down its progress. In patients with the wet form of macular degeneration and some other forms of that disorder a therapy with intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs is applied. These procedures focus rather on the conservation of the vision as a whole and possibly on its improvement.
It is very important to have periodic examinations to follow the progress of macular degeneration and upon occurrence of any change in vision, to seek for the cause.
General condition of patients must also be monitored – blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, or any deviation affecting the vision.

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